RR.AI AutoDrive is a confirmed autonomous driving system for each on- and off-road environments.

An organization with army software roots is leveraging 20 years of autonomous mobility expertise to scale its autonomy answer for transportation and logistics edge-case finish makes use of. CEO Alberto Lacaze particulars how.

Know-how developer Robotic Analysis has been engaged on autonomous and robotics options for the business’s harshest, unstructured environments all over the world since 2002. CEO Alberto Lacaze based the Clarksburg, Maryland, firm primarily to serve the U.S. DOD, with a lot of its army contracts geared to creating autonomy stacks for a wide range of automobiles.

Initially from Uruguay, Lacaze describes himself as a “technical man,” holding near 150 patents within the area of robotics. He developed among the very early neural networks within the Nineteen Nineties, and has labored with just about each side of autonomy stack over time. Lacaze was a part of the analysis school on the College of Maryland from the late Nineteen Nineties to the early 2000s, and he labored on the Nationwide Institute of Requirements of Know-how as a part of the federal government’s efforts to develop autonomy techniques for army automobiles.

A couple of decade later, the corporate started engaged on the business aspect. “We’re extra of a longtime firm on the DOD aspect, and extra of a startup on the business aspect,” Lacaze mentioned. The corporate’s vehicle- and sensor-agnostic full-stack autonomy equipment, referred to as AutoDrive™, has been built-in in a wide range of automobiles, together with North America’s first automated heavy-duty transit bus, Class 8 vans and yard vans.


The necessity for autonomy and robotics within the army is rising, however the best way to greatest deploy options inside networks of legacy techniques stays a problem, Lacaze mentioned. “As on the business aspect, the federal government aspect is attempting to determine the best way to place these new applied sciences into the normal forces.”

Some packages are pushing forward of others on the army aspect, and Lacaze highlighted a couple of for which his firm gives varied types of autonomous options.

The Expedient Chief-Follower program is aimed toward automating convoys in a logistics software for the U.S. Military. One other program entails a small autonomous floor automobile that carries provides like batteries, meals and stretchers for troopers. Different weaponized techniques are beginning to be automated by the DOD as nicely, he mentioned.

In January 2021, Robotic Analysis joined the Wave Relay Ecosystem, an business alliance of sensor and unmanned system corporations utilizing Persistent Techniques’ cellular advert hoc community to permit warfighters entry to a unified battlefield community. Robotic Analysis’s Warloc is a boot-worn sensor for protecting observe of dismounted troops in GPS-denied environments, and the corporate plans to incorporate the Persistent community in its personal Pegasus, a transformable UAS/UGV.

One other attention-grabbing latest software of Robotic Analysis’s techniques was proven by DD Dannar, LLC for its absolutely autonomous 4.00 Cell Energy Station (MPS) platform. The unmanned, zero-emission logistics automobile and cellular energy station was proven throughout Electrical & Unmanned Logistics Demo Day in June 2021 on the U.S. Marine Corps’ Air Station Miramar. The 2 corporations demonstrated how an unmanned 4.00 MPS can be utilized to ship provides and energy-storage capability, putting it in a primary place to be the “gas” truck of the electrified battlefield.

“They produce off-road, heavy-duty, all-electric platforms which might be already very versatile,” Edward Mottern, COO at Robotic Analysis, mentioned about working with Dannar. “Now add to them our sturdy autonomy options, and you’ve got a platform that’s clear, clever and able to sort out a bunch of missions at residence or overseas.”

The 4.00 MPS base configuration comes with 125-kW·h BMW i3 lithium-ion batteries, however it may be upgraded to a 504 kW·h of onboard electrical energy to function a cellular microgrid whereas carrying hydraulic instruments. The bottom MPS mannequin proven and listed on the GSA can function in 4 toes of water, weighs about 15,000 kilos and is ready to carry a payload of 15,000 kilos.

“Given their utility, our MPS automobiles are sometimes deployed in environments that aren’t all the time secure for operators,” mentioned Gary Dannar, president and CEO of Muncie, Indiana-based Dannar. “The autonomous functionality obtainable by way of Robotic Analysis offers our clients one more method to obtain their targets whereas protecting personnel secure.”

The U.S. Military’s Expedient Chief-Follower program is powered by Robotic Analysis autonomous options.


The primary program that helped Robotic Analysis start its transition to business autonomy functions took place throughout the Afghanistan Warfare, Lacaze mentioned. Troopers had been coming again to the U.S. with traumatic mind accidents, and there was a have to shuttle them between the wounded warrior barracks and hospital on the U.S. Military’s Fort Bragg. For that program, unassuming golf-cart-like automobiles geared up with the corporate’s autonomous know-how had been working 1000’s of miles contained in the very sophisticated website.

“That deployment confirmed us forward of a lot of our opponents’ foundings…a functionality that was nicely inside attain,” Lacaze mentioned. “We had the massive benefit that we had been allowed to check within the military services with out having to ask for permission from the Division of Transportation, which on the time was not giving permission to anyone. So, we obtained numerous benefits of getting many miles and testing forward of others.”

After that Fort Bragg software, many business take a look at and growth functions have adopted. Robotics Analysis is presently offering autonomous techniques to New Flyer and Gillig, two of the biggest bus makers within the U.S.

“We unveiled the primary absolutely autonomous Stage 4 bus a few years in the past,” Lacaze mentioned. “We’re proper now productizing these gadgets. We’ve got contracts proper now in Connecticut and Kansas Metropolis the place we’re working mainly the primary absolutely autonomous bus strains in these areas.”

The corporate can also be automating vans, with two giant efforts on that aspect, however Lacaze can’t speak an excessive amount of about it but as a result of he’s nonetheless below non-disclosure agreements.

“We’re below contract in two completely different functions with a major variety of vans,” he mentioned. “Most of those functions are what you’d name off-road shuttle runs. One among them is for delivering logs in Canada. The opposite one is [for] shifting combination from one location to a different.”

The corporate can also be automating yard hostlers.

“We’re in quite a lot of pilots proper now with yard hostlers for shifting trailers within the yards’ warehouses,” he added.

The significance of rising the enterprise even additional was emphasised in Could when RR.AI, the business division of Robotic Analysis, employed tech business veteran Scott Sanders as vice chairman of enterprise growth. The corporate additionally not too long ago employed authorities and regulatory coverage skilled Don Lefeve as vice chairman of company affairs.

RR.AI is partnering to combine its AutoDrive stack on Gaussin automobiles.


Autonomy is a fast-developing pattern for the on-road trucking business, however Lacaze doesn’t think about such suppliers of the know-how for long-haul business automobile functions as Aurora, Embark and Kodiak to be opponents.

“My understanding is that they’re primarily focused on freeway driving, which could be very interesting,” Lacaze mentioned. “However we predict that there’s one other story of autonomy, which is all the things else. Not all the things is on the street driving, and never all the things is robotaxis.”

Robotic Analysis has chosen many functions, however not essentially as a result of they’re simpler.

“A number of the areas the place we function are literally very difficult from a technical standpoint,” Lacaze mentioned. “However the cause why we’re deciding on them is as a result of they’re the low-hanging fruit. There’s much less regulation. No one’s stopping you from driving something on native roads.” The corporate’s focus is on functions with good enterprise instances that make sense from a price standpoint.

“They’re changing, in lots of instances, drivers that they can not discover or functions which might be simply very distant and never simple to workers, or too harmful, or not environment friendly sufficient to do with people,” he mentioned. “We’re very choosy so far as which verticals and automobiles we choose.”


Robotic Analysis’s major autonomy product is AutoDrive, which the corporate says is appropriate for 360-degree autonomous driving options for a wide range of advanced operational design domains (ODDs): on-road, off-road and in-the-yard functions. AutoDrive gives each the {hardware} and software program stacks. The {hardware} contains computer systems, navigation items and a sensor suite—and the total software program stack does all the things from notion to conduct technology.

“We additionally do different issues that different teams don’t do, which is a coordination of a number of automobiles to carry out a activity,” Lacaze mentioned. “That’s one thing that we additionally convey from the army aspect.”

For a lot of of its new contracts, the corporate can also be offering AutoDrive as a service. “How we have interaction with the client,” he added, “might be per mile, per hour and perhaps a mixture of each.”

For its AutoDrive system, the corporate combines its {hardware} experience with parts from different suppliers. Robotic Analysis’s merchandise are pretty LiDAR-centric. The exception is for army operations the place lively sensors usually are not allowed. For these, the corporate makes use of stereovision and structure-from-motion approaches.

The corporate builds its personal navigation items, that are a “massive, vital a part of the of the system, particularly as a result of we are able to run in all of the functions that we talked about with out GPS,” he mentioned. “And that requires some specialised {hardware} that’s not commercially obtainable. We do purchase sensors like cameras, LiDARs and radars from OEMs.”

Relating to operation with out GPS, Lacaze believes it’s a major differentiator for his firm’s know-how versus its closest opponents. Nonetheless, as a result of a lot of the opponents usually are not deploying but, it’s troublesome for him to take a position on them.

“We all know that that is one thing that we are able to do very nicely, and there’s many competitions on the army aspect that we’ve got received particularly due to these capabilities,” he mentioned, concerning operation with out GPS. “[With] a lot of our clients the place we’re beginning to have deployments or pilots, they’re telling us that that’s distinctive from us and an enormous benefit. No one needs to cease their warehouse functions each time that somebody activates a welder or a jammer, which occurs .surprisingly. generally, imagine it or not.”

One other key differentiator of the corporate’s {hardware} and software program stack is an method that could be very vehicle- and sensor-agnostic, Lacaze mentioned. It sometimes makes every sensor suite particularly for an ODD (operational design area).

“It’s not like we’ve got a normal sensor suite, after which we drive that sensor suite on each vendor,” he mentioned. “We predict that’s wasteful. The sensor suite that goes on the yard hostlers could be very completely different than the one which goes within the vans, for instance.”

There are a lot of similarities among the many army and business choices, and the liberty in deciding on sensors is essential to communizing as a lot as attainable.

“It is likely to be that, for some army functions, there are sensors that will likely be prohibitively costly for a business software,” he defined. “However in lots of instances, particularly within the logistics-related packages, we’re utilizing business sensors as nicely.”

The place the rubber hits the street on the army aspect, there are better calls for on connectors, weatherizing and shock and vibration. The requirements are additionally completely different, however there are some similarities to ASIL-D and ISO 26262.

Robotic Analysis gives autonomy to the Dannar 4.0 MPS.


Regardless of presently concentrating on “low-hanging fruit,” Robotic Analysis should cope with regulation because it additional commercializes AutoDrive. As soon as his firm must go on public roads in an enormous method, Lacaze is hoping for extra homogeneous security certification.

Like different business execs, he’s additionally trying ahead to a future when there are not any elements shortages.

“It’s not solely more durable to search out elements to make autonomy kits, however the automobile producers are all delayed on producing automobiles,” he mentioned. “It’s lengthy waits for each automobile that you simply order, in order that’s slowing down the entire business.”

Pricing is one other key problem, Lacaze mentioned.

“The LiDAR producers, as soon as they begin producing in portions, [will be able to] decrease their costs considerably, however now they’re nonetheless costly,” he mentioned. “If you wish to have a automobile that’s nicely geared up, that implies that it’s an enormous funding from a utilization standpoint. That’s why we decide and select clients very rigorously, as a result of it has to make sense for the client to do autonomy. That price equilibrium needs to be there even at present sensor costs.”

As Robotic Analysis strives for better business success, the corporate must do a greater job at selling its capabilities. A few years in the past, when it was working solely on the DOD aspect, Lacaze famous, “it was not a precedence for the corporate to make an enormous noise about who we had been. Regardless that we most likely have extra automobiles on the market in operators’ arms than anybody else proper now, with our AI and our business aspect, clearly we’re making a little bit bit extra effort on the promoting aspect.”

Nonetheless, Lacaze is assured of additional business success.

“As a result of our know-how applies to areas that others can not presently, or at the least usually are not targeted on delivering, it’s an enormous benefit for us,” he mentioned. “We will go to clients that proper now usually are not being served by anyone else.” 


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